Student Services An academic appeal is a formal request brought by a student to change a grade or to challenge a penalty imposed for violation of standards of academic integrity such as plagiarism or cheating. A request to change a grade or to challenge a penalty must be made within twelve months of the action.
By definition, the modern practice of history begins with written records. Evidence of human culture without writing is the realm of prehistory.
Mesopotamia[ edit ] While neolithic writing is a current research topic, conventional history assumes that the writing process first evolved from economic necessity in the ancient Near East. Writing most likely began as a consequence of political expansion in ancient cultures, which needed reliable means for transmitting information, maintaining financial accounts, keeping historical records, and similar activities.
Around the 4th millennium BC, the complexity of trade and administration outgrew the power of memory, and writing 911 writing activities a more dependable method of recording and presenting transactions in a permanent form. Louvre Museum Archaeologist Denise Schmandt-Besserat determined the link between previously uncategorized clay "tokens", the oldest of which have been found in the Zagros region of Iran, and the first known writing, Mesopotamian cuneiform.
Later they began placing these tokens inside large, hollow clay containers bulla, or globular envelopes which were then sealed. The quantity of tokens in each container came to be expressed by impressing, on the container's surface, one picture for each instance of the token inside.
They next dispensed with the tokens, relying solely on symbols for the tokens, drawn on clay surfaces. To avoid making a picture for each instance of the same object for example: In this way the Sumerians added "a system for enumerating objects to their incipient system of symbols".
The original Mesopotamian writing system believed to be the world's oldest was derived around BC from this method of keeping accounts. By the end of the 4th millennium BC,  the Mesopotamians were using a triangular-shaped stylus pressed into soft clay to record numbers.
This system was gradually augmented with using a sharp stylus to indicate what was being counted by means of pictographs.
Round-stylus and sharp-stylus writing was gradually replaced by writing using a wedge-shaped stylus hence the term cuneiformat first only for logogramsbut by the 29th century BC also for phonetic elements.
Around BC, cuneiform began to represent syllables of spoken Sumerian. About that time, Mesopotamian cuneiform became a general purpose writing system for logograms, syllables, and numbers. Scripts similar in appearance to this writing system include those for Ugaritic and Old Persian.
The last cuneiform scripts in Akkadian discovered thus far date from the 1st century AD. Elamite scripts[ edit ] Over the centuries, three distinct Elamite scripts developed.
Proto-Elamite is the oldest known writing system from Iran. In use only for a brief time c.
The Proto-Elamite script is thought to have developed from early cuneiform proto-cuneiform. The Proto-Elamite script consists of more than 1, signs and is thought to be partly logographic.
Linear Elamite is a writing system attested in a few monumental inscriptions in Iran.About 9/11 Lesson Plans; Cover Stories: Lesson Plans; Each lesson is tied to the Common Core Standards. Grounded in our collections, they are written for use throughout the school year and across subjects, including Social Studies, History, English Language Arts, and Art.
• Some Extension Activities offer alternative assessments, if. Hard scientific evidence that 9/11 was an inside job. World Trade Center towers destroyed by controlled demolitions using Nano-thermite - investigate Thermate Superthermite Red Thermite chips found.
Activity ideas designed to challenge student misperceptions about people of Arab descent -- from the Web site Teaching Tolerance. students are encouraged to share, through discussion and writing, their feelings about September 11, Teaching 9/11/ Lesson Plans and Syllabi Links to lesson plans for all grades, compiled by the.
Understanding September 11 Use this collection of September themed lesson plans, news stories, videos, and book lists to help students comprehend the 9/11 attacks and understand their lasting impact on the United States and the world, as well as why it was a transformative moment in U.S.
history. For Kids is a non-profit organization focused on emergency dialing education for kids and adults. There are many conspiracy theories that attribute the planning and execution of the September 11 attacks against the United States to parties other than, or in addition to, al-Qaeda including that there was advance knowledge of the attacks among high-level government officials.
Government investigations and independent reviews have rejected these theories.