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His reign was long and troubled, and in some ways showed the weaknesses of empire which ultimately led to the "Decline and Fall," yet his personal reputation, indeed his sanctity, have never failed of admirers.
Contributing to his fame and reputation is a slender volume of Stoic philosophy which served as a kind of diary while he was involved in military campaigns, the Meditations, a book which can be described as an aureus libellus, a little golden book.
The sources for understanding Marcus and his reign are varied but generally disappointing. There is no major historian. The chief literary sources are the biography in the Historia Augusta, as well A bibliography of art those of HadrianAntoninusVerusand Avidius Cassius.
Debate about this collection of imperial biographies has been heated and contentious for more than a century. In all likelihood, it is the work of a single author writing in the last years of the fourth-century.
The information offered ranges from the precisely accurate to the wildly imaginative. Cassius Dio, who wrote in the decade of the s, produced a long history of the empire which has survived, for our period, only in an abbreviated version.
Fourth century historians, such as Aurelius Victor and Eutropius, occasionally furnish bits of information.
Marcus' teacher, Fronto, a distinguished orator and rhetorician, is extremely useful. Papyri, inscriptions, coins, legal writings, and some of the church writers, such as Tertullian, Eusebius, and Orosius, are very important.
Archaeology and art history, with their interpretation of monuments, make the history of Marcus' principate literally visible and offer important clues for understanding the context of his actions.
Early Life He was born M. His grandfather held his second consulate in that year and went on to reach a third ina rare distinction in the entire history of the principate, and also served Hadrian as city prefect.
When Hadrian's first choice as successor, L. Ceionius Commodus, died before his adoptive father, the second choice proved more fruitful. The distinguished senator T. Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus, from Cisalpine Gaul, did succeed Hadrianwhose arrangements for the succession planned for the next generation as well.
He required Antoninus to adopt the young Verus, now to be known as M. Aelius Aurelius Verus, as well as Commodus' son, henceforth known as L. The former was a bit more than seventeen years old, the latter was eight.
Career under Antoninus Pius The long tenure of Antoninus Pius proved one of the most peaceful and prosperous in Roman history. The emperor himself was disinclined to military undertakings and never left Italy during his reign. Disturbances to the pax Romana occurred on the fringes of empire.
Responses were decisive and successful, with legates in charge in the provinces. As a consequence, neither Caesar gained military experience nor was shown to the armies, a failing which later could have proved decisive and disastrous.
Marcus rose steadily through the cursus honorum, holding consulates in andcombining magistracies with priesthoods. He received the tribunicia potestas inand perhaps also imperium proconsulare.Bibliography of the History of Art (BHA) and Répertoire de la Litterature de l'Art (RILA) provides a comprehensive bibliography of scholarly writing about the history of Western art from late antiquity to the timberdesignmag.com in scope, BHA and RILA encompasses fine arts-painting, sculpture, drawing, prints, and architecture-as well as decorative and applied arts-crafts, graphic arts, folk, and.
Buddhist art is the artistic practices that are influenced by timberdesignmag.com includes art media which depict Buddhas, bodhisattvas, and other entities; notable Buddhist figures, both historical and mythical; narrative scenes from the lives of all of these; mandalas and other graphic aids to practice; as well as physical objects associated with Buddhist practice, such as vajras, bells, stupas and.
Art history is a vast discipline, geographically, historically, and intellectually. In its initial centuries, art history dealt with Western art, but the boundaries of the field have since expanded.
The canon continues to be redefined as histories of art in regions that had previously been . This bibliography includes primary source texts relevant to the literary, historical, cultural, and religious milieu of Lollardy as well as those specifically by and about Lollard writers–and so, it is also a good place to start for work on later medieval religious culture in England at large.
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Sign up here for email notifications on new additions to this bibliography.. Graph of the Cumulative Total of Law and Neuroscience Publications: The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue.