An introduction to the heavy metals and their uptake by plants

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An introduction to the heavy metals and their uptake by plants

Published online Apr 4. Reproduction is permitted for noncommercial purposes. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Heavy metal concentrations were measured in soils and plants in and around a copper-tungsten mine in southeast Korea to investigate the influence of past base metal mining on the surface environment.

The results of chemical analysis indicate that the heavy metals in soils decreased with distance from the source, controlled mainly by water movement and topography. The results agree with other reports that metal concentrations in leaves are usually much higher than those in grain.

Factors influencing the bioavailability of metals and their occurrences in crops were found as soil pH, cation exchange capacity, organic matter content, soil texture, and interaction among the target elements. It is concluded that total metal concentrations in soils are the main controls on their contents in plants.

Soil pH was also an important factor. A stepwise linear multiple regression analysis was also conducted to identify the dominant factors influencing metal uptake by plants. Metal concentrations in plants were also estimated by computer-aided statistical methods.

Heavy metal, mining activities, metal uptake, soil pollution 1.

A Review on Heavy Metals (As, Pb, and Hg) Uptake by Plants through Phytoremediation

Introduction Heavy metals are released into the environment by both natural and anthropogenic sources. With the exception of soils derived from the physical and chemical weathering of parent materials containing elevated levels of trace elements e.

Mining, smelting, and the associated activities are one of important sources by which soils, plants, and surface waters are contaminated. In addition, there may also be safety risks for people working in mines and smelters or for those living close by with the risk of habitat destruction.

A Review on Heavy Metals (As, Pb, and Hg) Uptake by Plants through Phytoremediation

For example, soils totalling 4, km2 or more have been contaminated by heavy metals in the vicinity of mining and smelting areas in England and Wales, [ 5 ]. Numerous studies regarding metal contamination in metalliferous mining and smelting areas have been carried out in the United Kingdom [ 7 - 9 ], in the United States [ 10 ] and in other countries.

Although there is a long history of mining in Korea, limited studies have been undertaken to deal with heavy metal contamination from mining [ 2411 - 12 ]. The present study focuses on metal dispersion and environmental impacts of heavy metals in soils and plants in the vicinity of the Dalsung copper-tungsten mine located in southeast Korea.

The site is one of the biggest Cu mines in Korea with a maximum production in the s. The geology of the site is greatly influenced by volcanic activities; as a consequence, it is composed of quartz-monzonite, andesitic breccia, andesite porphyry and partly volcanic rocks such as rhyolite, volcanic ashes and tuff [ 13 ].

The ore minerals of the mine, classified as a hydrothermal replacement type embedded in breccia pipe consist of chalcopyrite CuFeS2 and wolframite Fe. The mine stopped its production in It was suggested to construct concrete bays to reduce the discharge of heavy metals downstream from the mine dump; mine reclamation work with soil-topping method was adapted in [ 12 ].

Nevertheless, the mine dump with enhanced metal contents has been discharged downstream which may adversely influence crops growing on the surrounding land. As local residents consume these crop plants continuously, this may possibly have adverse impacts on human health. The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of this base metal mining and associated waste materials on heavy metal contamination of soils and crop plants.

This study will contribute to the knowledge required to resolve practically environmental problems in mining areas, where metal contamination may adversely influence crops, animal and human health. Methodology Surface soil samples cm depth were taken by hand auger 2.

Random samples of plants were taken from each site growing within the mine dump areas and household gardens including corn grain Zea maysjujube grain Zizyphus jujubaperilla leaves P.There is evidence that plants can accumulate heavy metals in their tissues such as Sebera acuminate and Thlaspi caerulescens (Cunningham and Ow ), Arabidopsis thaliana (Delhaize ), Typha latifolia, and Phragmites australis (Ye et al.

). research on the uptake mechanisms of non-essential heavy metals is empha- sized.

An introduction to the heavy metals and their uptake by plants

INTRODUCTION The flow of heavy metals through different pathways to foodstuffs and man is of fundamental interest for any discussion of heavy metals in relation to human health 22 2s.

The contribution of heavy metals from air, water and food varies for people in different areas and for the metal studied. Plants will affect the soil through their ability to lower the pH and oxygenate the sediment, which affects the availability of the metals, increasing the bioavailability of heavy metals by the addition of biodegradable physicochemical factors, such as chelating agents and micronutrients.

Heavy Metals and Plants - a complicated relationship Mechanisms of Metal Uptake in plants Root uppptake and intracellular distribution in plants • Anthropogenically due to the use of heavy metal salts (e.g.

CuSO 4, z.B. Zn-phosphid, Zn-borate, Zn-fluosilicate): concentrations in the. Plants will affect the soil through their ability to lower the pH and oxygenate the sediment, which affects the availability of the metals, increasing the bioavailability of heavy metals by the addition of biodegradable physicochemical factors, such as .

the heavy metal uptake inside the shoot plays at least as important a role in hyperaccumulation as do the root mechanism s. Clearly, the major ligands for both Cd and Zn in hyperaccumulator plants.

An introduction to the heavy metals and their uptake by plants
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