Population, Sustainability, and Earth's Carrying Capacity:
Click here to go to the index page. In this review paper, I will be discussing the swingplane.
The swingplane is a Concept comparison paper misunderstood, and frequently misused, term that has entered the golf intructional world's lexicon in recent years, and there are endless debates in golf discussion forums on what represents the "correct" swingplane.
Swingplane The idea of a swingplane apparently originated when Ben Hogan introduced the idea of a plane of glass extending from the ball to his shoulders in his golf intructional book "Five Lessons: The Modern Fundamentals of Golf, which was first published in the late s.
Glass plane resting on Ben Hogan's shoulders - from reference number  One can see the glass plane resting on Ben Hogan's shoulders.
Many golfers Concept comparison paper misinterpreted this photo and they have thought that it means that Ben Hogan recommended that a golfer should swing his clubshaft on the plane repesented by the glass plane during the backswing.
However, that idea is incorrect and it doesn't represent what Ben Hogan stated in his book. Ben Hogan wasn't referring to the clubshaft when he envisaged this glass plane idea - he was thinking of his left arm.
In his book , he stated that a golfer should perform a backswing action that would keep the left arm below the glass plane throughout the entire backswing, and he didn't want the left arm to break through the glass pane during the backswing.
In other words, Ben Hogan wanted golfers to avoid a steep left arm movement during the backswing, and he believed that the left arm should get across the shoulder turn angle at the end of the backswing, and that the hands should end up in a position behind the right shoulder.
Ben Hogan didn't want golfers to get their hands above the right shoulder and close to the back of the neck as a result of a too-steep arm lifting movement. Ben Hogan stated that one should feel the back of the left forearm brush against the undersurface of the imaginary glass pane in the late backswing as the arms finally reach their end-backswing position.
Many golf instructors have misinterpreted Ben Hogan's glass pane idea to imply that it relates to the clubshaft and some people have even redrawn his diagram to represent their personal idea of the correct swingplane.
Glass plane concept - from reference number  Note that the glass pane passes through the mid-section of the golfer's torso and that the angle of the glass pane is roughly equal to the clubshaft's address angle at address.
This plane angle is called the clubshaft-at-address plane. Many beginner golfers, who look at this diagram, may think that they should swing their clubshaft along this plane during the backswing and downswing.
Consider a photo demonstrating the impact position of most professional golfers. Hand and clubshaft position at impact - from reference number  Note that the hands, and therefore clubshaft, are slightly higher at impact grey color compared to the address position blue color.
The downward bowing of the clubshaft is a natural phenomenon due to the physical forces acting on the clubshaft as it passes through the impact zone at a very fast speed.
So, the question becomes - on what plane should a golfer swing his clubshaft during the backswing and downswing? To answer that question - a beginner golfer needs to clearly understand the difference between a path and a plane.
A path is the path that a body-part, or clubshaft-part, traces in 3-D space during the golf swing.
For example, one can trace the path that the clubhead peripheral end of the clubshaft traces in 3-D space during the golf swing. Here is an example of a traced clubhead path showing the path that the clubhead traces in space during the downswing and early followthrough.
The level of angled inclination of the arced path relative to the ground gives rise to the idea of an inclined plane. Consider a down-the-line view of a golfer at impact.
Aaron Baddeley at impact - capture images from a swing video This image of Aaron Baddeley at impact is actually a composite photograph of two capture images - one image taken when the clubhead is nearly at impact, and the second image is taken just after impact.
You can see that the clubhead in moving along an in-to-square-to-in path and that the clubhead is only going to be perfectly square to the ball-target line at impact.This paper will discuss compare and analyze the concepts based of each of these ladies theories to show how they are related.
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The FT-1, set to debut at the North America International Auto Show, is not a "real car," but a "concept car" -- a three-dimensional frenzy of winks and side glances, sucking scoops, and brutal. 2. Executive Summary.
The aim of this briefing paper is to provide an overview of recent evidence in the field of childhood wellbeing. Relevant material was identified through literature and web searching during March/ April , and selected for. INTERNATIONAL IMAGE SENSOR WORKSHOP Monday, June 8 th AM.
Introductory paper. The State-of-the-Art of Mainstream CMOS Image Sensors Ray Fontaine Competitive Technical Intelligence Group, Chipworks, Inc., Canada.