Updated 25 July With its more than
Bentham, Jeremy — — As one of the most influential exponents of Utilitarianism, Jeremy Bentham had maintained that social organization had to be adjusted in such a way as to maximize human happiness, and that the best way to effect this was Crime and deviance in britian a series of specialized government departments, controlling public administration from Whitehall.
He was the designer of what might be termed the ideal surveillance prison — the Panopticon — which, for a variety of reasons, was never constructed.
The Big Brother of the book watched citizens through a television set in each room of the house, although it was never clear whether there was actually anyone watching or not — therefore evoking the Panopticon.
Many who use this term have now forgotten its origins, and yet it remains a powerful and critical comment on state powers of surveillance. Borough — An administrative division used in England, generally denoting a self-governing town or city. Boroughs also usually had the right to elect a member of parliament.
As part of a large reform of local government inboroughs were replaced by district councils. The boundaries of the City have remained the same since the Middle Ages, and hence it is now only a tiny part of the metropolis. The City of London still maintains its own police force, as distinct from the Metropolitan Police serving the rest of the city.
Crank — A machine used in nineteenth-century prisons. Consisting of a wheel with a counting device fitted into a box of gravel, prisoners were required to turn the handle for a set number of rotations, moving the gravel around the box. Decarceration — Literally, the opposite of incarceration.
This term refers to the often conscious process of turning away from imprisonment towards different forms of punishment — including fines and correction in the community.
At various points during the twentieth century —39 in the UK, —75 in the Netherlands, the s in West Germany prison populations have fallen significantly, despite the overall crime rate increasing.
Degeneration theory — Popular towards the end of the nineteenth century, this theory suggested that, just as Darwin had proposed that species evolved into more sophisticated forms over time, it was also possible that some people were degenerating into lower, more animalistic forms of being.
Typically, the criminal element of the working class was identified as degenerate, due to a combination of inherited characteristics and the effects of unhealthy slum living.
Disciplines and sub-disciplines — Academic disciplines are branches of knowledge or fields of study which are found on university syllabuses at either undergraduate or post-graduate level. Disciplines are defined by the practitioners within it, the academic journals in which research is published, and usually, though not always, through the development of learned societies.
Disciplines usually claim a particular and distinctive form of working or methodology, and comprise sub-disciplines or branches. For example, history contains ancient history, mediaeval history, modern history, and so on.
Many see criminology as a sub-discipline of sociology which others do not even recognize as a discipline. The boundaries between sub-disciplines are not fixed, and often seem difficult to locate.
The disciplinary or sub-disciplinary boundaries between crime history and historical criminology are a case in point.If you meant one of those, just click and go.
If you want to start a Main/BritishLaws page, just click the edit button above. Be careful, though, the only things that go in the Main namespace are tropes and should be created through the YKTTW system. Don't put in redirects for shows, books, etc. Charles Murray is the author of Losing Ground: American Social Policy , in ‘illegitimacy’, crime and unemployment, the second is primarily pre-occupied with ‘ illegitimacy’, marriage and the state of the British Charles Murray.
the. CHARLES MURRAY AND THE UNDERCLASS. The ‘invention’ of sexuality. The Victorian period is a key moment in the history of sexuality; it is the era in which the modern terminologies we use to structure the . FAMILY AND INTIMATE RELATIONSHIPS: A REVIEW OF THE SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH Val Gillies Page Introduction 2 Models of Families, Kinship and Change 3 From Social Obligations to Negotiated Change 9 Breakdown, Democratisation or Continuity 15 Intimacy as Social Capital 16 Researching Intimate Relationships 18 References Society consists of sharply divided people with different lives and distinct identities.
Written by leading sociologists, the new edition covers a range of social inequalities, with new chapters on work, social identity and global social divisions. It continues to be an invaluable, up-to-date introduction for social science students.
Aug 05, · crime and deviance possible 4 markers: 'explain what sociologists mean by the dark figure of crime' - 'explain what sociologists mean by occupational crime' possible 12 markers: 'discuss how far sociologists would agree that opportunity is the main reason women commit less crime than men'.