Churchill The Gospel of Thomas is arguably the most important writing known to man today. Important spiritual teachings were removed from the traditional Gospels by the Church.
Introduction In recent years, there has been growing interest in meaning research. In addition to the numerous journal articles on meaning e. However, in spite of the central role of meaning, we still do not have a comprehensive theoretical framework that is capable of incorporating most of the empirical findings on meaning research and logotherapy Frankl, There are already two edited volumes by Alexander Batthyany and associateson research relevant to logotherapy, but these publications have received scant attention from positive psychology researchers.
Although both logotherapy and positive psychology are concerned with how to live a meaningful life, they seem to function in parallel universes, divided by vast differences in language, worldviews and Seeking your true self in the.
Such a divide makes integration between logotherapy and positive psychology a daunting task. Though positive psychologists do make an occasional reference to Frankl in connection with meaning research e. Likewise, logotherapists can benefit from learning more about the empirical findings of positive psychology research on meaning.
Firstly, he was the first significant pioneer in restoring spirituality and meaning to psychotherapy. This is particularly important in an increasingly dehumanized, technological culture. Secondly, he was the first psychotherapist who made the will to meaning, self-transcendence and responsibility the primary therapeutic objectives, which have been largely ignored by mainstream psychotherapists.
Thirdly, I believe that his positive message will complement positive psychology in restoring hope and purpose to all those who are struggling in the negative territories of life.
Frankl was unique in that he developed a lofty and noble view of what is right and good with human beings in spite of his immense suffering in Nazi concentration camps. His personal experiences lent credence to the basic tenets of logotherapy, which were tested and found valid even amid all the dark forces in human existence.
The nature of his approach differs from positive psychology because Frankl embraced both the bright and dark sides of human existence and believed that inevitable human suffering could contribute to human achievement and meaning in life Frankl, While he was still a medical student, he applied logotherapy to help high school students struggling with suicidal ideation in Vienna, because of the high suicide rate of this demographic.
At the time of his medical school graduation, he had been able to reduce this suicide rate to zero, thus he was able to establish a reputation for his work in Vienna Batthyany, The dehumanization of individuals as machines resulted in many psychological and social problems such as boredom, alienation, addiction and abuse.
Marshall, personal communication, February 21, Frankl was able to put the basic tenets of logotherapy to empirical test through his experiences at the Nazi concentration camps.
Logotherapy became widely accepted during an era of meaning crisis caused by the Second World War and the collapse of traditional values Fabry, ; Graber, According to Frankl, to survive the dehumanization of industrialization and the Nazi concentration camps required a defiant human spirit.
An example of such defiance was demonstrated in the Polish rebellion and the French resistance, in which many freedom fighters gave their lives.
Although they did not survive physically, their moral courage and defiant human spirit had the survival value of empowering others to rise above suffering and pursue a cause greater than themselves. They exercised their freedom of will; they chose to stand up and fight rather than be slaughtered like helpless animals.
They had found something worth fighting and dying for; in so doing, they filled their lives with meaning. He provides us with a spiritually oriented blueprint for a better future for humanity. Such empirical support, although historical and phenomenological in nature, is no less valid than a typical, artificial experimental manipulation in social psychology research.
Furthermore, his basic ideas resonate with the age-old wisdoms of Taoism and Stoicism. Given the increasing evidence of the lack of replicability of some social psychology findings e. In spite of this cautionary note, there is still value in rigorous research that is based on well-developed measurement instruments and clearly defined and valid constructs.
The meaning-seeking model that I have developed here is intended to facilitate such empirical research. The Positive Bias of Positive Psychology In contrast to logotherapy, contemporary positive psychology, launched in by Martin Seligman, was developed during a time of peace and prosperity.
Positive psychology initially focused only on the bright side of human existence; I called it positive psychology 1. The current stance of positive psychology 2. The ability to take negativity in stride and roll with the punches can reduce a great deal of the stress that is so prevalent in modern life.
Furthermore, the uniquely human characteristics of meaning seeking and meaning making enable people to transform toxic viruses of the mind into virtues. For most clinicians, one of the major challenges is how to equip clients to face the storms of life with equanimity and hope and how to transform negatives into positives.
I have branded this integrative approach Existential Positive Psychology Wong, b, b and meaning-centered therapy e.
Positive Psychology Research on Meaning Recently, mainstream psychology research has paid increasing attention to the role of meaning.
This year alone brought us four new books devoted to meaning i. The Positive Psychology of Meaningful Living Contemporary positive psychology has identified meaning as a major research topic.
Peterson considered meaningful work, love, play and service to be the major domains of the good life. Though these models recognize that meaning is important, their happiness-oriented conception of meaning prevents us from understanding that the pursuit of meaning might clash with the pursuit of happiness e.
A clear example of this clash is that parenting can result in less subjective life satisfaction, but higher meaning e.The official organization founded in by Paramahansa Yogananda to teach scientific methods of meditation and principles of spiritual living that lead to direct God realization.
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In Loving What Is, bestselling author Byron Katie introduced thousands of people to her simple and profound method of finding . Abstract. The main purpose of this chapter is to introduce Viktor Frankl’s logotherapy to the 21st century, especially to positive psychologists interested in meaning research and applications.
An expert on helping parents navigate the asylum process describes what she's seeing on the ground. An important teaching in the Gospel of Thomas restores a foundational concept that the removal of which, has alienated and disenfranchised the Christian world from the spiritual meaning of the Gospels -- which alienation has inhibited their entrance into the Kingdom they seek.